1. Make a list of German Expression Filmmaking Techniques that have been linked with Gothic Horror;
  • Minse-en-scene
  • chiaroscuro
  • Ornate
  • Monochromatic
  1. One particular technique, chiaroscuro is particularly memorable in Sweeny Todd attic room. What key features of this setting that develop chiaroscuro?

In all corners of the attic room, you will see the corners are a lot darker than the parts of the attic where the widow shines.

  1. Think about the same technique, chiaroscuro, and its presence in Sleepy Hollows. Can you describe a setting?

A setting in Sleepy Hollows is the setting in Sleepy Hollows is the setting with the tree in it. The contrasting colors are the tree itself is really dark, and the trees around it are really dark as well, but the sky and the people in the scene are very lightly colored.

  1. Expressionist filmmaking also favors to develop an idea. How is the color used in Sweeny Todd and Sleepy Hollows?

In both Sweeny Todd and Sleepy Hollows have very monochromatic colors, but then red is the only color that is only really used is red representing blood which is very bright and vibrant.

  1. A feature of Gothic horror is the claustrophobic fear that there is no escape. Consider techniques fear that is presented in both films that develop this fear.

In Sleepy Hollows, the claustrophobic feature is shown through when he trying to solve the shown through when Johnny Deeps character is trying to solve the murders and he just keeps coming to dead ends.

In Sweeny Todd, the claustrophobic feature is shown through the fact he sees no other way to avenge his wife by murdering the ones who did her wrong.

  1. What is the “Hammer Horror” style? describe its defining features and explain what influences you can see in the two films

I couldn’t answer this question because I don’t know what Hammer Horror is

  1. The red blood is a distant feature of both films what is its purpose?

The purpose of the color red in both films is to show blood and the brutality of what the characters are doing or what is happening.

Dracula- Writing portfolio

“There are darknesses in life, and there are lights. You are one of the lights. You will have a happy life and a good life, and your husband will be blessed in you.”

Dracula written by Bram Stoker is a novel about a young English lawyer (Johnathan Harker) who travels to Transylvania in Eastern Europe, to conclude a real estate transaction with a nobleman by the name of Count Dracula. As he proceeds to the home of Count Dracula, he gets given warnings on the way by the peasants in the countryside, as Harker is passing through the countryside, peasants give him crucifixes and other charms, and they mutter strange words that translate into “vampire”.Harker investigates more into Count Dracula and in the end, find out that he possesses supernatural powers and diabolical ambitions. After Harker is attacked by three beautiful seductive female vampires, he fears for his life and escapes from the castle.

At home in England, Harker’s fiance (Mina)’s friend Lucy not long after visiting a Russian shipwreck with the only cargo is a set of fifty boxes shipped from Dracula’s Castle. Mina, one night finds Lucy with glowing red eyes at the cemetery. Lucy starts to go pale, and she bears two tiny red marks on her throat. Unable to determine a diagnoses Dr. Seward calls for his mentor, Professor Van Helsing.

Harker, suffering from a brain fever, reappears in the city of Buda-Pest.  Lucy’s room is covered in garlic, which trains her illness, but her mother who is unaware of the garlic powder accidentally removes it, leaving Lucy vulnerable to further attacks. Lucy is further transformed into a vampire and Van Helsing kills her.   

Dracula’s castle in the novel is a classic gothic setting. We get our first glimpse of the castle when Harker reaches the courtyard of the castle:“… the courtyard of a vast ruined castle, from whose tall black windows came no ray of light, and whose broken battlements showed a jagged line against the sky.”As you can tell from this quote it describes the castle to be very gloomy and dark, which is a classic gothic setting.


“Moreover, the walls of my castle are broken. The shadows are many, and the wind breathes cold through the broken battlements and casements” From this quote the interior of the castle is much darker as the castle’s exterior. But the interior is much more well kept as we can see in this quote: “The table service is of gold, and so beautifully wrought that it must be of immense value. The curtains and upholstery of the chairs and sofas and the hangings of my bed are of the costliest and most beautiful fabrics, and must have been of fabulous value when they were made, for they are centuries old, though in excellent order.” This is a classic example of a gothic castle dark and mysterious on the outside and then neat, dark and high classed interior.

In conclusion, I think Dracula is the classic gothic novel with all the classic techniques of a gothic novel, the setting of the castle it had pointed steples, it was in the middle of nowhere, it was big and intimidating just like every gothic castle should be, Stroker did a really good job, using words that really captured the image of the castle. I really liked the novel I thought it was really good to read and the author really painted a clear picture in my head with describing all the setting, and the way that the characters were feeling. Stoker wrote a really good novel and I would highly advise it for anyone.

Wide Reading Log – Twilight Franchise


“The gloom of the forest didn’t relent, though, for there were six primordial cedars that shaded an entire acre with their vast sweep of branches. The trees held their protecting shadow right up to the walls of the house that rose among them….”

The Twilight franchise is written by Stephenie Meyer is a fantasy-themed series based about a young woman, Isabella Swan (Bella), and her life living in Forks, Washington, and who falls in love with a 104-year-old vampire named Edward Cullen. Mainly from Bella’s point of view. In the end, Bella is turned into a vampire after getting pregnant by Edward on their honeymoon. The Cullen Family also end up going and changing the Volturi’s perspectives on half breed vampires.

I think the author’s intention was mainly just to make entertainment for the readers the series is very drama filled, and has a lot of romance, and at the same time has that dynamic of gothic fiction as well the novels has a gloomy, dark settings such as the forest around the town “The forest spread out around us in a boundless labyrinth of ancient trees” (Twilight), and when Bella first gets to Forks she describes the town as gloomy: “…..a small town named Forks exists under a near-constant cover of clouds. It rains on this inconsequential….. It was from this town and its gloomy….” (Twilight).

One of the main gothic element we see in the series is the supernatural beings, such as vampires and werewolves. The main character’s love interest (Edward Cullen) is actually a vampire as well as his whole family, and in the last book Bella herself is turned into a vampire by her half-blooded baby. “And you’re worried, not because you’re headed to meet a houseful of vampires, but because you think those vampires won’t approve of you, correct?” (Edward Cullen – Twilight). “Laurent, these are Victoria and James.” He gestured to the vampires beside him.” (Edward Cullen Twilight) Victoria and James the first protagonists of the story, Victoria continues to be the protagonists for the first three books.

In the book there are three types of vampires, the half-blood (half- human half-vampire) very rare (because they are illegal), the ones who drink human blood (which are most of the vampires) , but there is also the very few vampires who only drink animal blood – like the Cullens and some of their relatives- Edward referred to them as vegetarian vampires “I can’t be sure, of course, but I’d compare it to living on tofu and soy milk; we call ourselves vegetarians, our little inside joke. It doesn’t completely satiate the hunger — or rather thirst. But it keeps us strong enough to resist. Most of the time.” (Edward Cullen Twilight). 

There are also werewolves in the novels as well, and it happens to be one of Bella’s friends is a werewolf, but we don’t really hear much about them until the second book “ He was a tribal elder, like my father. You see, the cold ones are the natural enemies of the wolf—well, not the wolf, really, but the wolves that turn into men, like our ancestors. You would call them werewolves.” (Jacob Black Twilight). 

A couple of vampires have special gifts, one vampire in particular (Alice Cullen) has the gift of foresight, so she can see into the future, therefore, foreshadowing everything in the books. “Alice,” Carlisle asked, “will they take the bait?”Everyone watched Alice as she closed her eyes and became incredibly still. Finally, her eyes opened. “He’ll track you. The woman will follow the truck. We should be able to leave after that.” Her voice was certain” (Twilight). This is an element of gothic fiction because in the second book Alice foreshadows that Bella will become a vampire: “Aro seemed frozen over Alice’s hand.”Dear Caius,” Aro smiled. “Do not fret. Think of the possibilities! They do not join us today, but we can always hope for the future. Imagine the joy young Alice alone would bring to our little household… Besides, I’m so terribly curious to see how Bella turns out!“, we can only assume that Alice showed Bella turning into a vampire because this happened, the Volturi wasn’t going to let Bella go, with her being a human and knowing the secret.

The series was really good, I liked all the drama in the book, the fantasy in the book. It was very well written by leaving many pictures in my mind. I also liked it showed the relationship of family, because in the books the Cullen’s sacrificed everything for Bella and Edward because they are family, and that’s what I loved about the book.



Sweeney Todd Analysis

  • All dark and mysterious settings
  • Not really any other colors than Singora Parelli’s clothes that he is wearing.
  • When Singora Parelli’s sharpening his shaving blade you can tell he enjoys hurting the little boy (Jack).
  • The purple that Singora Parelli is wearing is associated with trickery and magic.
  • Todd has some sort of supernatural ability with shaving faces.
  • when Tod is shaving in the competition we see that he takes his time and is very careful, but at the end of the film and when he kills Parelli we see a repulsive and insane side of Todd
  • When Todd is offering to shave the judge’s 2IC, Todd foreshadows his feelings by the way he offers.
  • Joanna’s windows are blurry indicating that her perspective of the world is very limited
  • The smashed mirror shows how Todd is ‘broken’ and how his past is broken
  • The flowers that Mrs. Lovett sings about shows symbolism because to Mr. Todd to him it represents and happy life therefore when Mrs. Lovett suggests getting flowers it tells him that she wants to start a life together.
  • The silver razors that Mr. Todd has represents justice
  • The ‘evil’ music that is layered over the scene when Singora Parelli comes to the barber shop is foreshadowing intensity.
  • The kettle on the boiler also helps the audience to see a metaphor – the temper of Mr. Todd when he boils over – when Mr. Todd kills Singora Parelli
  • When he kills Singora Parelli it makes him look insane
  • Dramatic irony- when Jack sits on the chest which Singora Parelli is in because he can’t see the hand sticking out but we can see it.
  •  When Todd twitches his lip he’s trying not to lose his temper.
  • When the judge convicts the little boy we get a repulsiveness towards the Judge.

John Locke

In this essay, I will explain the connections with Mary Shelly’s gothic novel Frankenstein, John Locke’s theory “Concerning human understanding”. The novel Frankenstein seems to incorporate the idea of Locke’s theory as you see in the novel when we as the audience come in contact with Frankenstein’s monster for the first time.

Born on the 29th of August, 1632 John Locke was an English philosopher and physician, known widely as one of the great minds of the Enlightenment thinkers. Locke attended Westminster School in London and then went to Christ Church, Oxford, where he studied medicine, which played a major part in his understanding of his Tabula Rasa theory. Locke was also the one who distinguished between simple and complex knowledge. Locke was one of the most well-known philosophers and political theorists of the 17th and 18th centuries. Locke also wrote many books on a range of different topics. Locke is considered the ‘father of liberalism’, which is established on the principle of the liberty and equality, which then lead him to be a founder of the U.S Declaration of Independence and Constitution of human rights.

The theory that we are focusing on, and that is Tabula Rasa or ‘blank slate’ theory. The Tabula Rasa theory is that the when a child is born their mind is ‘white paper, void of all characters’, and we learn by experiences Locke says in one his essays “No man’s theory goes beyond his experience”. Locke believed that every human was born with their mind completely blank, which went against all traditional philosophy, which was that at the very least that when we were born we were born with some rational thinking and ‘human nature’ which Locke did not believe in. Locke believed that all men were born equal. This was thought of when Locke meet Anothny Ashley Cooper, who advanced Locke’s career, he followed him to Holland where he first wrote “Concerning human understanding” – his first novel – and then later returned to England where he wrote more books.

In Mary Shelly’s gothic novel Frankenstein Victor Frankenstein (the protagonist), creates a monster from numerous body parts, from the dead. After Frankenstein created the monster he left the monster to fend for himself. Not knowing any language or had no capabilities of any sort, the monster spied on a family living in the woods where he learned everything he needed to know, how to survive, how to read and write. He soon after turned to kill all of Frankenstein’s family, payback for leaving him alone.

At the beginning of the novel, the monster narrates and he says: “I started up and beheld a radiant form among the trees”. Here the monster lacks initial awareness of the world, just as a child would, this is showing how the monster is learning by experience, Like Locke’s theory. We also see throughout the book that just like a child the monster craves knowledge: “…was indeed a godlike science, and I ardently desired to become acquainted with it… I cannot describe the delight I felt when I learned the ideas appropriated to each of various sounds and was able to pronounce them”. 

“I felt light, and hunger, and thirst, and darkness; innumerable sounds rang in my ears, and on all sides, various scents saluted me”. This said by the monster shows us that, the monster had no prior knowledge of the world, this is another place where we see Locke’s theory come through the story.

This quotes from the story said by the monster: “I began to distinguish my sensations from each other. I gradually saw plainly the clear stream that supplied me with drink, and the trees that shaded me with their foliage.” shows us that the monster learned by experience, there showing us Lock’s theory that all children are born with a blank slate for a mind, and that we learn and comprehend the world by experience.

All together in the novel, we can clearly see Locke’s theory make appearances throughout the book, the monster being created with no comprehension of the world no previous knowledge of the outside world, and that the monster leaning by experience; but if we are meant to say that the monster learnt from experience are when then meant to say if Frankenstein only looked after the monster he might not have become a monster. Nurture over nature.

In conclusion, I think that Mary Shelly was inspired by Locke with Tabula Rasa, that she decided to incorporate it into her gothic novel. I think that the novel was a bit of realism with the growing of a child, sure it had people coming back from the dead and killing all of his creators family, but, I think it showed realism when it came to the monster developing his personality, the novel showed the readers that no matter where you are born or how you look, we are all made the same we all have a blank slate for a mind when we are first born. The novel showed us that “No man’s theory goes beyond his experience” which was Locke’s theory.

Gothic Setting


  • Geneva
    Mary Shelly describes scenes surrounding the Swiss house is as “majestic and wonderous”, and that the mountains are sublime shapes, and the sea is tempest and calm, this tells us that the Geneva house has a lot of contrasting qualities but also very similar qualities; for example, Shelly says that the surroundings of the Swiss house are majestic and wonderous which tells me (personally) that the surroundings are ‘grand’ and telling me that the surroundings are very open like a big field or really big woods. Shelly also says that the sea is ‘tempest and calm’, which is very very contrasting verbs, tempest meaning rough, and calm meaning relaxed, which tells me what Shelly thinks of the sea when she says this (personally) I think she says the sea, although the sea may look calm on the surface it could be wild and tempest under the surface.
  • The Swiss Alps

“But it was augmented and rendered sublime by the mighty Alps, whose white and shining pyramids and domes towered above all, as belonging to another earth, the habitations of another race of beings.”


Shelly describe the Swiss Alps very grandly, she describes them as very ‘mighty’ and big as Shelly says they are ‘domes towered above all’. She also talks about how they belong ‘to another earth’ which tells us that she wants us to think they are grand and beautiful, but also the way she says it the reader could also interpret that the Alps could be scary when it says ‘mighty Alps’ she could mean that we should be scared of these mighty Alps, when Shelly says that they are from another world she could mean it negatively. it all depends how the reader interprets the text.


Frankenstein Essay

Frankenstein is a fantastic novel by Marry Shelly. One of the fantastic elements in the novel is how Shelly writes the gothic antagonist (Frankenstein’s creature). The elements of a gothic antagonist are supernatural powers, dualism, control, and passion and drive. Frankenstein’s creature displays all of these qualities.

His supernatural powers are his superhuman speed and strength, he is able to withstand extreme conditions, and he has a massive physical presence. His superhuman abilities intimidate people as well with his different pieces of his sewn together face.

“At that instant, the cottage door was opened, and Felix, Safie, and Agatha entered. Who can describe their horror and consternation on beholding me? Agatha fainted, and Safie, unable to attend to her friend, rushed out of the cottage. Felix darted forward, and with supernatural force tore me from his father, to whose knees I clung, in a transport of fury, he dashed me to the ground and struck me violently with a stick. I could have torn him limb from limb, as the lion rends the antelope. But my heart sank within me as with bitter sickness, and I refrained. I saw him on the point of repeating his blow, when, overcome by pain and anguish, I quitted the cottage, and in the general tumult escaped unperceived to my hovel.” (15.36)

He displays dualism by the way he acts at the start of the novel he begins as an essentially a good character, but then after being turned away, attacked and feared, he becomes revengeful and develops a hatred for the human race. At the start of the novel, he displays a good character but then after he gets that rejection from Frankenstein his ‘father’ and that continuous rejection he feels that the whole world won’t accept him, because if his own father won’t accept him why won’t the rest of the world.

“Another circumstance strengthened and confirmed these feelings. Soon after my arrival in the hovel, I discovered some papers in the pocket of the dress which I had taken from your laboratory. At first, I had neglected them, but now that I was able to decipher the characters in which they were written, I began to study them with diligence. It was your journal of the four months that preceded my creation. You minutely described in these papers every step you took in the progress of your work; this history was mingled with accounts of domestic occurrences. You doubtless recollect these papers. Here they are. Everything is related in them which bears reference to my accursed origin; the whole detail of that series of disgusting circumstances which produced it is set in view; the minutest description of my odious and loathsome person is given, in language which painted your own horrors and rendered mine indelible. I sickened as I read. Hateful day when I received life!' I exclaimed in agony.Accursed creator! Why did you form a monster so hideous that even YOU turned from me in disgust? God, in pity, made man beautiful and alluring, after his own image; but my form is a filthy type of yours, more horrid even from the very resemblance. Satan had his companions, fellow devils, to admire and encourage him, but I am solitary and abhorred.”(15.8)

He displays passion and drives to find a companion and when he tries to find acceptance. He tries so hard to get accepted by the human race, but after getting rejected so many times he thinks he needs someone who is like him so he can have someone who will accept him, and he goes to extreme lengths to get what he wants, he blackmails and murders Frankenstein’s family so he would be able to get a companion (a female creature).

Frankenstein’s creature has amazing control over Frankenstein by controlling him with the weakness of Frankenstein’s family, therefore getting want the creature wants whenever he wants. Th creature gets what he wants by blackmailing and murdering Frankenstein and his family.

“All was again silent, but his words rang in my ears. I burned with rage to pursue the murderer of my peace and precipitate him into the ocean. I walked up and down my room hastily and perturbed, while my imagination conjured up a thousand images to torment and sting me. Why had I not followed him and closed with him in mortal strife? But I had suffered him to depart, and he had directed his course towards the mainland. I shuddered to think who might be the next victim sacrificed to his insatiate revenge. And then I thought again of his words — “I WILL BE WITH YOU ON YOUR WEDDING-NIGHT.” That, then, was the period fixed for the fulfillment of my destiny. In that hour I should die and at once satisfy and extinguish his malice. The prospect did not move me to fear; yet when I thought of my beloved Elizabeth, of her tears and endless sorrow, when she should find her lover so barbarously snatched from her, tears, the first I had shed for many months, streamed from my eyes, and I resolved not to fall before my enemy without a bitter struggle.”(20.16) 


So conclude Frankenstein’s monster in my view is the perfect representation of a gothic antagonist, he keeps the protagonist on his toes, he makes it hard for the protagonist to reach his goals. He displays all the attributes of a gothic antagonist,



Wide Reading Task #1 (The Tell Tale Heart)

“It was impossible to say how the idea first entered my head. There was no reason for what I did. I did not hate the old man; I even loved him. He never hurt me. I did not want his money. I think it was his eye”


The Tell-Tale Heart written by Edger Allan Poe is a great short story of a man who we do not know the name of and his mental state throughout the killing of who we know as the old man. Narrated in the first person, the narrator indicated how the old man (well rather his eye) disturbed him. The narrator’s ultimatum was that he was tempted to kill the old man to get away from the eye an example of this is ” I did not hate the old man; I even loved him. He never hurt me. I did not want his money. I think it was his eye”. After a lot of consideration the narrator gets too worked up by the eye and kills the old man and quickly ‘disposes’ of him under the floorboards of the old man’s house, and later feels too guilty that he killed the old man that he confesses to the police to what he did to the old man.


The Tell-Tale Heart is a dark and gloomy story that I enjoyed. I believe that what the author was trying to get across how our emotions can dictate our lives and ‘persuade’ us to make irrational choices for example; at the start of the short story the narrator says “It was impossible to say how the idea first entered my head. There was no reason for what I did. I did not hate the old man; I even loved him. He never hurt me. I did not want his money.”, this shows that he had no reason to kill the old man, but then goes on the say “I think it was his eye. His eye was like the eye of a vulture, the eye of one of those terrible birds that watch and wait while an animal dies, and then fall upon the dead body and pull it to pieces to eat it. When the old man looked at me with his vulture eye a cold feeling went up and down my” this shows his discomfort of the “vulture” eye, and how it dictated the narrator to kill the old man. The narrator get’s so worked up by the eye that his negative emotions that it prevents his rational thinking, he doesn’t think of the consequences of his actions. This is one of the emotional qualities that we find in gothic protagonists and one way identify them, the way he makes decisions based on emotions, not rationally. We see this a lot in the real world as well as in the world of fiction, people sometimes make (if not always) make decisions based on how they feel and don’t really think of the consequences of those decisions, for example, a person might save a person for a tricky situation instead of staying out of it and not getting involved, the person listen to his feelings/emotions to make that decision to help another person. I think making decisions based on emotions is sometimes good but in the Tell-Tale Heart the narrator should not have based his decision on his emotions, he should’ve thought of the outcomes and looked at the problem rationally.

What I found interesting was the amount of knowledge that we know of the narrator. We virtually know nothing about him, we don’t know his name his age or his relationship with the old man, the narrator says that “I have been ill” but we have no idea what type of sick. He has an ‘air of mystery’.We can only make assumptions. This is another thing that I think that the author is trying to introduce to the audience,  since we know nothing about the narrator when he is saying he is ill or when he kills the old man, we automatically set up an assumption about this narrator, but what if he wasn’t like this before the story what if the narrator was just a kind and simple being and we made the assumption that he is evil.

In the world today we still are very emotional beings and we sometimes let emotions dictate our lives that we don’t think of the consequences that we might suffer.  And we all have that ‘air of mystery’ we all have something that we keep hidden, you think you know everything about your best friend but you don’t there is bound to be one thing you haven’t told them. This short story just showed me the enhanced ways of the world, the author took these little qualities in people and overexaggerated them.

Frankenstein my thoughts

The book for me was very interesting, some parts of the book were quite predictable, with what was written like when Elizabeth was killed I think the was quite and predictable thing, but also the fact that Frankenstein’s monster turned into a killing machine was quite a shock because I though he just want to be close to Frankenstein.

The Introduction to Frankenstein

Shelley says about the novel’s origin that it sounds like that some of her characters came from actual people in her life e.g. “… Mary Shelley have somehow managed to praise her work only be presenting her talent as a fortuitous refraction of the ‘genius’ possessed by her then virtually unknown love-partner and companion, Percy Shelley. We shall see later that in more ways than one, there is indeed much of Percy Shelley ‘in’ Frankenstein.“, but they also say it just came from her “intuitive genius”. This is saying a young girls of her age at their time should not have these thoughts and Shelley disagreed with them.

The things that parallel that can be drawn between the ‘birth’ of the monster in the novel and the ‘birth’ of the novel itself, you can connect these two things by that when the novel was published Shelley got a lot of negative comments on the book, and when Frankenstein’s monster was created it the monster got a lot of bad comments from Frankenstein himself. They both are out of the ordinary, Frankenstein Brough a ‘being back from the dead, and back when Shelley wrote this book, it was not normal for women of her age to have these thoughts, so they both broke the barriers in the way that society should see them.